Full Citation: 

Ott WR, Klepeis NE, Switzer P (2007) Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology. July 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.jes.7500601.

This journal article presents new data on air change rates and real-time secondhand smoke particle levels for automobiles measured during over 100+ experiments. Air exchange values are given for a variety of car speeds, window positions, and air conditioner settings, which will be useful in exposure and risk assessments. The study confirmed that high concentrations of secondhand smoke can occur in automobiles during smoking, even if the windows are open and ventilation is used.

Document Type: 
Journal Article
Full Citation: 

Klepeis N.E., Ott W.R., and Switzer P. (2007) "Real-Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles," Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 57:522-534.

In this first published study of exposure to outdoor tobacco smoke, investigators measured air pollution levels during visits to outdoor pubs, cafes, and sidewalks where smokers were present. They also performed controlled experiments of air pollution as a function of distance. The main conclusions from the study are that a person can be exposed to concentrated streams of tobacco smoke particles that are many times more polluted than normal background pollution levels.

Document Type: 
Journal Article

Stanford Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Study

Full Citation: 

Klepeis NE, Ott WR, Switzer P (2004) "Real-time Monitoring of Outdoor Environmental Tobacco Smoke Concentrations: A Pilot Study." Technical Report, Department of Statistics, Stanford University.

This report describes the results of a pilot study performed in California on potential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor settings. This study is one of the first ever performed to characterize a person's exposure to particles produced from outdoor smoking activity.

Document Type: 
Technical Report
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Dr. Wayne R. Ott - pioneer in the field of human exposure

Dr. Neil E. Klepeis - long-time secondhand smoke research scientist

James L. Repace - international secondhand smoke expert

Dr. Lance A. Wallace - pioneer in the field of human exposure


U.S. Surgeon General - Report on health consequences of exposure to secondhand smoke

ETS Exposure and Outdoor ETS - California Air Resources Board info pages

ETS Documents and Notices - OEHAA California government site

Smoke Free Homes - USEPA federal government site

SimSmoke.Org - simulate exposure to tobacco smoke

ExposureScience.Org - research articles, reports, and software

ExposureAnalysis.Org - resources for students